||Many of the processes that can occur in mountainous landscapes have the potential to significantly affect fire behaviour and bushfire risk in general. These processes can lead to otherwise unexpected fire behaviour and escalation in fire size and severity that could endanger firefighting crews and compromise suppression activities. Interaction of upper winds with rugged terrain can often result in highly variable and turbulent wind patterns and variations in temperature and humidity that can affect fire regimes in the long and short term. More generally, the effect of rugged terrain on atmospheric flows can give rise to complex dynamics and emergent properties that are discontinuous in nature. Hence, the ‘fire weather continuum’ that is often assumed in fire management practices is of reduced validity in mountainous or hilly landscapes. This paper presents an overview of the main elements of mountain meteorology relevant to fire weather and discusses the potential roles they may play in bushfire behaviour, development and risk. As such, the paper is intended to promote understanding, across the wide range of professions concerned with bushfire, of how mountain meteorological effects might contribute to fire potential and fire behaviour.